Exclu du prêt
|Titre :||Breast Milk from Smokers Contains Less Cholesterol and Protein and Smaller Size of Apolipoprotein A-I Resulting in Lower Zebrafish Embryo Survivability (2017)|
|Titre original:||Basic Science|
|Auteurs :||Kim Seong-Min, Auteur ; Kim Suk-Jeong, Auteur ; Kim Jae-Ryong, Auteur|
|Type de document :||Article : texte imprimé|
|Dans :||Breastfeeding Medicine (Vol. 12, n°6, Juillet - Août 2017)|
|Article en page(s) :||pp. 365-372|
"Background: To determine the quality of breast milk (BM), we compared the functions of BM from ex-smokers and nonsmokers.
Subjects and Methods: We analyzed the contents of lipids, glucose, and protein in BM from ex-smokers (10 cigarettes/day for 13 ± 3 years) as well as infant formula.
Results: Nonsmokers' BM showed 2.4- and 1.4-fold higher cholesterol and protein contents, respectively, than BM from smokers. Infant formula contained almost no cholesterol, but did show remarkably higher glucose and triglyceride levels than BM. Microinjection of BM (50 nL) from nonsmokers and smokers into zebrafish embryos resulted in 59% and 44% survival, respectively, whereas formula injection resulted in 31% survival. The higher cholesterol and protein contents of BM were directly correlated with higher embryo survivability, suggesting that cholesterol content is directly and critically associated with growth of neonate infants. Smokers' BM contained smaller-sized apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) (24.4 ± 0.2 kDa) than BM from nonsmokers (26.7 ± 0.4 kDa), suggesting that putative modification and cleavage occurred in apoA-I. BM containing higher molecular weight apoA-I resulted in higher embryo survivability.
Conclusions: Smoking before pregnancy can affect the composition and quality of BM, resulting in almost complete loss of cholesterol and protein, especially lactoferrin, lactalbumin, and apoA-I, accompanied by proteolytic degradation. These impairment effects of BM are associated with elevation of oxidative stress and lower embryo survivability." [Résumé de l'auteur]